Cannabinoids and Medicinal Cannabis

Cannabinoids are molecules synthesised by cannabis plants and stored in trichomes along with terpenes. The cannabinoids are responsible for the different effects felt after consuming cannabis or any of its derivatives. In this category, we will delve into the characteristics of cannabinoids and terpenes, and the potential medicinal use of each of them.

What are CBD:THC ratios and what are their benefits?

What are CBD:THC ratios and what are their benefits?
Las proporciones CBD:THC

Cannabidiol (CBD) and tetrahydrocannabinol (THC) are the main cannabinoids found in cannabis plants. Although both interact with the body's endocannabinoid system, the effects of these two compounds are very different.

For example, THC binds to CB1 receptors in the brain and causes feelings of euphoria or a "high", known as psychoactive effects. But aside from just getting you high, THC is widely used for its medicinal properties, for its ability to induce appetite, treat insomnia, stop nausea or relieve pain. However, the correct dose is essential, because too much THC can cause unwanted side effects.

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CBN (cannabinol): a minor cannabinoid with great potential

CBN (cannabinol): a minor cannabinoid with great potential
CBN, un cannabinoide contra el insomnio

Cannabinol (CBN) is one of the least known cannabinoid compounds compared to others present in cannabis. Despite the fact that CBD and THC have been the best researched, CBN was actually the first cannabinoid to be isolated by scientists at the end of the 19th century, although its chemical synthesis first occurred in 1940. However, despite its age, only recently has CBN received some attention due to its purported ability to induce sleep and aid relaxation.

CBN forms naturally when THC is exposed to light and heat, situations that cause oxidation. Since CBN derives from THC, they both have a similar molecular structure: THC even has 'cannabinol' in its name (tetrahydrocannabinol). Specifically, prolonged exposure to air (oxidation) causes the THCA molecule contained in fresh cannabis to convert to CBNA. In turn, if the acid form of cannabinol (CBNA) is subjected to heat or ultraviolet rays, it will convert to CBN, the active form of the compound.

And since CBN is created as cannabis ages (it is the best-preserved cannabinoid found in ancient Chinese graves that are thousands of years old), in the past this cannabinoid has typically been associated with old or poorly dried/cured cannabis, which has led to it having somewhat of a bad rap, as it may not get you as high as you'd like, giving you a more narcotic sensation instead.

You can also obtain more CBN by cutting the plant at a more advanced stage of maturation, waiting until the trichomes have gone from their typical milky white colour to a more amber hue, as when the trichomes degrade or oxidise they turn this shade.

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CBG (Cannabigerol): Effect and Properties

CBG (Cannabigerol): Effect and Properties
CBG, el nuevo CBD

CBG (cannabigerol) is one of the more than 100 cannabinoids found in marijuana, but, because it is present in very low levels in most varieties (generally between 0.1 - 0.5%) it is considered a minor cannabinoid. However, the importance it is acquiring in recent times makes it one of the compounds with the greatest potential for therapeutic treatments based on this plant.

Despite its medicinal potential, the difficulty of producing large quantities of CBG has hampered its research and commercialization. The extraction of CBG is very expensive, since it requires a lot of biomass and the use of highly specialized equipment, which is why it has also been called the 'Rolls Royce of cannabinoids.' In fact, CBG prices are five times, or more, higher than those for CBD. But this has changed quite recently, as, thanks to the development of new genetics rich in CBG, it has been possible to obtain it more effectively, thereby opening the door to large-scale legal production.

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The aroma and flavor of cannabis beyond terpenes

The aroma and flavor of cannabis beyond terpenes
Más allá de los terpenos: el nuevo lenguaje del aroma del cannabis

The cannabis market has products that cater to all tastes, and to enhance the diverse range on offer, the current focus is on terpenes, the compounds that give each cannabis strain its aroma and flavour, thus allowing consumers to broaden their understanding of the plant further beyond cannabinoids or the simple indica/sativa binomial.

But what about the dozens of other chemical compounds that the cannabis plant produces as well as its active cannabinoids and terpenes?

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Treating Insomnia with Cannabis

Treating Insomnia with Cannabis

What is Insomnia?

Insomnia is medically defined as being dissatisfied with one's quality of sleep, having difficulty falling asleep, also problems maintaining sleep throughout the night, often waking up very early in the morning and then being unable to return to sleep.

Sleep is crucial in maintaining and repairing the body and mind. We require good quality sleep for all mental and physical functions, and insomnia quickly reduces one’s ability to operate efficiently. This can be both distressing and depressing.

It is unfortunately extremely widespread. In the US alone, insomnia is estimated to effect more than 46.2 million people.

The medical profession is currently woefully ill-equipped to deal with the problem. The drugs available are both ineffective and addictive, with few alternatives to choose from.

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Treat epilepsy with Cannabis?

Treat epilepsy with Cannabis?

Currently, there are very few doctors and hospitals directly offering cannabis treatments worldwide - despite increasing understanding, knowledge and awareness of the remarkable healing properties of this plant. Fortunately, studies on this miraculous plant are becoming more widely undertaken.

Here, we take a look at just two of the illnesses that cannabis is already being proven to be very effective at treating.

This material is collated from those countries that are rapidly reassessing the efficacy of this medicine in the treatment of a wide variety of illnesses - and acting upon the undeniable evidence supporting the use of cannabis plant.

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Beta-Caryophyllene - the terpene detected by dogs

Beta-Caryophyllene - the terpene detected by dogs

Beta-Caryophyllene, also known as BCP, is a naturally occurring aromatic terpene found in many essential oils and plant extracts, and is known to occur in plants such as cloves, hops and rosemary, not just cannabis.

Beta-Caryophyllene is also responsible for the taste of black pepper and many of its medicinal benefits, though the possible medical applications of Caryophyllene and other such terpenes are only recently being investigated there is already significant evidence that they can bring long-term health benefits.

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Some lesser known Cannabinoids

Some lesser known Cannabinoids
Cannabis is much more than THC and CBD

There is much talk of CBD and THC in the world of cannabis, however, there exists a myriad of other important constituents within the cannabis plant, known as cannabinoids and terpenes of which CBD and THC are just two.

Some of these other cannabinoids and terpenes like CBN, CBG and THCA, have extraordinary effects and are as yet little known or discussed in mainstream media.

If you look closely at cannabis you realise the plant is a veritable medicine cabinet which knows no bounds.

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Treating Alcoholism with Cannabis

Treating Alcoholism with Cannabis

Cannabis and alcohol have been in popular recreational use for millenia. The various attempts to control alcohol (through prohibition) have failed dismally with cannabis suffering a similar legal fate which remains largely in place to this day. Despite cannabis being historically viewed as the more “dangerous” of the two, and alcohol the state- sanctioned and widely available social lubricant of choice. As we know- sadly- legal does not mean healthy.

The legalisation of alcohol gives a deceptive illusion of safety.

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Cannabis and sports

Cannabis and sports

The historical use of cannabis as an aid to sporting achievement is both long and well documented

Cannabis has been utilised all over the world for centuries, and particularly in Africa where it has become the cultural backbone of many societies throughout history, such as the Khoikhoi and Bantu peoples of eastern Africa who have used cannabis for centuries as medicine and as a performance enhancer when needed. The association between cannabis and sports performance is long indeed.

Over the centuries cannabis weaved itself into the very fabric of these cultures, being relied on not only for its medicinal uses and folk traditions, but for a performance boost when hunting, gathering and quite likely when going to war.

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The benefits of cannabis for treating Fibromyalgia

The benefits of cannabis for treating Fibromyalgia

What is Fibromyalgia?

Fibromyalgia can be a completely devastating disease, often affecting women, with symptoms that include chronic pain, insomnia, fatigue, migraines, painful joints as well as irritable bowel issues.

Symptoms have been known to start folllowing physical trauma, hospital surgeries or major psychological stress. It is also possible for symptoms to slowly accumulate over time with no obvious trigger. Let's see how cannabis can help these patients.

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What is CBD?

What is CBD?

Cannabis has been traditionally associated with its main psychoactive cannabinoid, THC (tetrahydrocannabinol). Despite this fact, another cannabinoid has gained the attention of both the cannabis scene and the medical community during the past years, CBD or Cannabidiol. The wide range of possible therapeutic applications of this cannabinoid, and the fact that CBD is not psychoactive, have triggered an increasing interest on this specific molecule, especially when patients are reporting a considerable improvement of their quality of live which they couldn't find with other medicines.

Thus, a large number of CBD-rich cannabis strains have been developed lately, as well as ointments, capsules, oils, etc. rich in this cannabinoid, which are completely legal since they do not contain THC (these cosmetics are made from 100% organic and legal hemp crops).

Philosopher Seeds is aware of this situation and is constantly working on developing feminised cannabis strains with CBD like Spicy CBD, Fruity Jack or Sweet Love, along with new projects that you'll soon discover like Cheesy Auto CBD or Lemon Auto CBD.

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About this Cannabis Blog

This is the blog of the seed bank Philosopher Seeds. It is intended for the use of adults over the age of 18 years.

You'll find information on homegrowing cannabis, tips, tricks and news from the cannabis sector.

To buy seeds from Philosopher Seeds and the best European seed banks. you can check out our cataogue.


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